common mistakes during articulation

qualified quran teachers

common mistakes during articulation

 

Take YOUR time!  Practice regularly.

 

Arabic Alphabet Chart

 

Articulation Transliteration letter In English
أَلِف ̛alif ا ā
بَاء Bā’ ب b
تَاء Tā’ ت t
ثَاء thā’ ث th
جِيم jim ج j
حَاء Ha’ ح h
خَاء Khā’ خ kh
دَال daāl د d
ذَال zāl ذ z
رَاء Rā’ ر r
زَاي zāy ز z
سِين sin س s
شِين shin ش sh
صَاد sād ص s
ضَاد dāad ض d
طَاء Tāa’ ط t
ظَاء ẓā’ ظ
عَينٍ ain ع ع̛
غَين Ghain’ غ gh
فَاء Faa’ ف f
قَاف qāf ق q
كَاف kāf ك k
لاَم lām ف l
مِيم mim م m
نُون nun ن n
هَاء Ha’ ه هـ h
وَاو wāw و aw, au, u
يَاء Yaa’ ي ay, ai, i
هَمزَة Hamza ء, أُ,  إِ,  أَ aa

 

Confusing Arabic Letters seems the same

Light Sound during Articulation Heavy Sound during  Articulation
taa    ت Tāw      ط
Dāl    د dāwd    ض
zāl    ذ ẓāa’  ظ
sin    س sāwd   ص
Kāf    ك qāwf    ق

 

Some letters are uncommon to many languages, especially in English.

  • Confusion  within  ث, ذ, ظ 

ث, ذ, ظ These letters are emitted from the tip of the tongue. Care should be taken to form sure the highest of the tip is basically colliding or separating with the sides of the teeth (not the plates of the teeth). ث, ذ, ظ are a number of the foremost mispronounced letters in Arabic. This error should be attended to and glued as soon as possible by the scholar of the Qur’an.


The ظ is usually mispronounced as an important sort of “z”. the rationale for this is often not using the highest of the tip with the sides of the incisors. The ظ may be a letter that has heaviness, which characteristically tends to be present even within the misarticulated sort of the letter, and thus the heavy “z” sound. Some students of the Qur’an may have the articulation point of this letter correct, but don’t make the required heaviness that’s needed when reciting this letter. The posterior portion of the tongue must get up to the roof of the mouth to require place.


The ذ is repeatedly mispronounced as a clear “z”. Again, the answer is again using the highest of the tip of the tongue and therefore the bottom edges of the 2 top front incisors. There should be enough protrusion of the tip tongue altogether three of those letters in order that it’s visible to the observer. The ث frequently is pronounced as a س by mistake. 

 

  • Confusion with ص , س, ز 

ص , س, ز, These three letters are emitted by placing the tip of the tongue on the plates of the 2 front lower incisors. These letters also are called “whistle” letters, which suggests they’re called that thanks to the accompanying whistle type sound once they are emitted properly.


The most common mistake that happens within the three letters as a gaggle is within the lack of whistle. The mandible should be protruded until it aligns with the upper jawbone while saying these three letters, and Insha’Allah they’re going to begin clearly with the right “whistle” sound.
Another mistake that happens singularly within the ص isn’t making it heavy enough. it’s one among the Tafkheem (heavy) letters, and it also has the characteristic of sticking. If the ص isn’t made heavy enough, it sounds a bit like, or very on the brink of a س. The sticking of the tongue with the ص is with the rear of the tongue. It sticks to the very back of the taste bud while pronouncing this letter.

 

  • Confusion with ك & ق 

 

The letter, ق _ (قَاف )- qāf isn’t a standard letter in other languages. There are two mistakes in articulating this when reciting the Qur’an. Usually, it’s a drag within the articulation point. Either the letter is articulated on the surface or on the brink of it, so it finishes up sounding like an English “k” or “quo”, or the letter is pronounced not from the tongue, but from the throat a ق. Native English speakers tend to form this sort of error and Muslims of eastern origin also make the error.

ك _( كَاف)- kāf is usually mispronounced at an articulation point further back within the mouth than the right articulation point. The resultant letter is usually closer to a ق than the right desired sound. Muslims from the South-East tend to possess this error. Native English speakers sometimes pronounce this letter a touch further back within the mouth than is completely correct so there’s no air heard with the letter. In truth, there should be a running of air when this letter is pronounced correctly.

 

  • Confusion with  ي, ش, ج 

Three letters use the center of the tongue for articulation. they’re ي, ش, ج (unlengthened). These three letters are articulated from the center of the tongue and what lies opposite thereto from the roof of the mouth. this suggests the center of the tongue collides with the roof of the mouth when these letters are articulated without a vowel.

The mistakes which will occur with these letters tend to more within the area of characteristics than within the specific articulation point, but not exclusively so. The ج is usually mispronounced by Arabs and non-Arabs alike, with a running of the sound, just like the common “j”. To pronounce it correctly, first confirm the center of the tongue is getting used, and not the anterior portion of the tongue, then consider not letting any sound and air run out when saying the letter.

ش sometime articulated incorrectly. Westerners sometimes pronounce this just like the English “sh”, which features a more forward position than the Arabic.
The ي (unlengthened ) sometimes mistakenly is articulated with an accompanying running of air. This letter shouldn’t have air running with it, so care must be taken to regulate the air and suppress its excessive outward flow.

 

  • Confusion with  ص & س

 

The ص – (صَاد) takes practice to perfect its articulation. The foremost common mistake in its pronunciation is using the tip of the tongue rather than the side (posterior two thirds). ص – is one that may be a bit tricky. Start by saying S normally then pulls the center of your tongue to the bottom of your mouth, leaving the tip on the brink of your teeth. Now attempt to make this sound and follow it with a, ending with D. Something like “SSaawd” should be the result. ص is sort of a magnified version of س.

  • Confusion with ض & د

ض – also like ص, this is often a magnified version of د, made by saying Da. Only pulling the center of your tongue down. While د is gentle and straightforward to form, ض or Dawd is more of an important and deep sound. After pronouncing the sound, open your mouth to feature an ‘aa’ sound and end with normal D.

The resultant sound then is that of a د _ (دَال)- daāl . Using the center of the tongue and what opposes it of the center of the roof of the mouth is another common error. The resultant sound is kind of sort of a heavy د. Some teachers even sometimes have difficulty pronouncing correctly. Some people consistently pronounce this letter using the tip of the tongue and therefore the teeth and the resultant sound is strictly that of a ظ.

  • Confusion with ط & ت

The mistake that happens most frequently in these letters is using the soft elevated area behind the gum rather than the gum line. English “t” and “d” are articulated at this position which is further back within the mouth than the Arabic د and ت. When these letters are emitted back too far, their sound gets heavy. Another problem which will occur altogether of the letters during this group isn’t using just the highest of the tip, but instead employing a large portion of the highest of the tongue. this is often common in native English speakers, and it contributes to an important sounding letter.

ط _ ( طَاء ) Ta’ maybe a letter that has heaviness and sticks to the roof of the mouth. it’s the strongest of all the letters of the Arabic. The foremost common mistake (outside of the above mistakes) during this letter isn’t getting it strong enough. Taking note of an honest reciting can assist in learning the right sound for the ط.

Other confusions

  • ح  haa’ is the word many would say the ha’, even the English “h” is often pronounced higher in the throat than the Arabic haa’.  The letter ح  from the middle of the throat need practice to proper pronunciation.  The first step is getting used to using the throat, especially the middle, only keep your mouth open when you do. try to pronounce it from the middle point.  There is plenty of air that runs with this letter with ح and  you end the letter by suddenly cutting the air.

 

  • خ – like forcing phlegm out. I know sometimes it seems gross, but khaa’ requires less effort. It is often mispronounced as a “kh” by non-Arabs. It is articulated from the posterior portion of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. Remember to not put an excessive amount of pressure thereon. 

 

  • ع_ (عَينٍ)  “ain” is the letter is pronounced from throat but the same point, but has more emphasizing on the sound.  It is a different letter from many languages. Listening to a Qur’an tape will work well in practice.

 

  • ر In English “R” is a little less pronounced. The primary and commonest mistake within the ر _ (رَاءisn’t striking the tip with the highest of the tip to the gums. English “r” is articulated without the tongue striking on any a part of the mouth, numerous native English speakers need to practice a touch to mention the ر correctly. One should physically feel the tongue hit the gum of the 2 top front incisors.

 

  • The و is usually mispronounced as a “v” by some. There’s no “v” in Arabic, and “v” has an equivalent articulation point because of the “f”. At the start, much practice is going to be needed to beat this mispronunciation. the scholar of the Qur’an might want to form note of all the unlengthened و during a passage he/she is reciting or memorizing, and practice those phrases or words to form sure all of them begin correctly.
    Westerners need to a lookout that they really do put pressure on the lips when pronouncing the و, otherwise, the sound comes out weak sort of a “w”, which isn’t an equivalent sound because of the و.

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